Electron Microscopy of Sperm
The fertilization process should be considered not only in terms of anatomy and immunology, but also on the part of the cell — the cell level. At the cellular level two main reasons for the failure of fertilization can be distinguished:
- insufficient sperm count or their lack in the ejaculate;
- functional deficiency of sperm.
In the first case the fertility forecast is determined by a routine laboratory semiological analysis — spermogram. The violation of the sperm functional properties with normal light microscopic study cannot be detected.
To establish the etiopathogenesis of pathospermia and to assess the functional state of spermatozoa the ultrastructural analysis is used. The electron microscopic researches allow for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cellular elements (organelles) needed to perform the fertilizing sperm function and, in some cases, to identify the cause of their functional disorders.
The electron microscopy of sperm in Nizhny Novgorod can be conducted in the infertility treatment clinic of full cycle «Father, Mother and Baby».
For successful fertilization and further fragmentation of sperm the following is required:
- nucleus for the transfer of the paternal genetic material into the oocyte;
- acrosome, with the help of which the sperm penetrates the egg;
- flagellum – a motor unit, which makes it possible to overcome a relatively large distance from the vagina to the upper portion of the oviduct, where fertilization occurs;
- centriole of the mature sperm that provides embryo splitting.
All these elements are measured by more than 20 parameters
The causes of pathological changes:
- congenital (genetically determined) diseases;
- impact of harmful factors (different types of radiation, intake of certain drugs, the systematic use of alcohol, lead or mercury poisoning);
- chronic inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs (prostatitis, veziculitis);
- vas deferens obstruction;
- hormonal disorders;
- varicocele (enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum).
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